HAZID study has been developed specifically to reflect the importance of HSE issues on the fundamental decisions that are made at the inception of all development projects (e.g. design concept and location). HAZID is the first opportunity to collect experienced line and HSE staff together to address, in a short timeframe, the issues surrounding a new venture or development or modification project.
The HAZID Study technique includes the following
- The objective is to identify and describe health, safety, and environmental hazards and risks as soon as possible during the initiation of a project or undertaking.
- A gathering of a proficient and diverse group of individuals utilizing a systematic brainstorming approach, founded on a comprehensive list of plausible health, safety, and environmental concerns, to evaluate the relevance of potential dangers.
- Conduct a qualitative assessment of risks in order to rank the hazards.
- The process of identifying and describing potential problems is conducted expeditiously, with the sole purpose of recognizing issues rather than attempting to resolve them.
HAZID study is a structured approach to determine the potential impacts of the following;
- The surroundings on the facilities.
- The facilities on their surroundings.
- The facilities on the health
- Project Implementation Issues
HAZID study review is to identify potentially dangerous and undesirable events, which might affect a facility (equipment, operators, and production). The review allows proper identification of HSE hazards at the beginning of a project and provides a detailed list of project hazards and recommended controls to manage those hazards to an acceptable level of risk
The review also describes the causes and consequences of these hazard scenarios and provides recommendations that propose:
- Mitigation measures that will eliminate the risk of occurrence of these events or limit their consequences
- Investigations and studies to quantify the risks and possible consequences
The ultimate goal of the HAZID review is to identify potential hazards and manage the risk of those hazards to an acceptable level of risk. The HAZID technique is designed to identify and mitigate risks associated with design decisions made in the early stages of the project. By identifying these risks early in the design phase, the cost and schedule impact associated with the implement risk reduction measures is minimized.
The HAZID process involves the collaboration of seasoned line and HSE personnel to examine the concerns associated with a novel undertaking or alteration initiative. HAZID was conducted according to the guidelines for HAZID to identify potential hazards through the application of guidewords so that impacts within the following categories could be assessed:
- External and Environmental Hazards
- Facility Hazards
- Health Hazards
- Project Implementation Issues
The HAZID technique includes the following:
- The objective is to identify and describe health, safety, and environmental hazards and risks as early as possible in the development or implementation of a project
- A group of experts from various disciplines convened to conduct a systematic brainstorming session utilizing a predetermined checklist of potential health, safety, and environmental concerns in order to evaluate the relevance of potential risks
- Conduct a qualitative assessment of risks in order to rank the hazards
The HAZID analysis was executed in accordance with a predetermined set of procedures:
- The process design team provided an overview of the design intent process operations and operating conditions of the facility
- Appropriate section/area of the plant was selected
- Design intent of the area and process conditions were defined
- First/Next Hazard Category was selected
- First/Next guide word was applied, which when combined with Hazard category will give the hazard scenario
- All the potential causes of the hazard were determined (by brainstorming)
- Credibility of each cause was agreed
- The consequence of each cause was assessed; the protection and prevention provided against the causes and its consequences were assessed
- Using a risk ranking matrix, each Hazard is then given a risk ranking for each of the four groups (People, Environment, Asset, & Reputation)
- Additional recommendations were provided based on the requirement
- The team then calculated residual risk for each of the four groups (People, Environment. Asset & Reputation)
- The next guideword was applied (relevant to the selected Hazard Category)
- The next Hazard Category was applied until they have all been considered
- The next area of the plant/project was considered until the whole study area has been examined
During the HAZID workshop, Health, Safety, Environmental, Reputation hazards were ranked as per the Risk Assessment Matrix (RAM).
This qualitative risk ranking assesses the likelihood and consequence of the hazards to derive the significance of the hazard. The initial risk ranking was assigned on the assumption that no control/mitigation measures are in place.
For each risk that is ranked in the ALARP region, the team will consider and make a statement as to whether, based on the current understanding of the design, that all practicable measures have been incorporated in the design, and hence that the risk as assessed is ALARP. This statement will be used in to support the argument that the overall design is ALARP.
This statement is not necessary or applicable for risks that are ranked in the intolerable or tolerable regions. If there are any risks in the intolerable region, these will need to be reviewed by COMPANY and may be taken forward for further detailed evaluation.
The proceedings file of the HAZID are recorded and Risk treatment plan (recommendation/ action/ query items) are recorded and the corresponding HAZID Close Out Action Sheet (Appendix E) are generated for subsequent follow-up and close out by responsible action party. It is accountable for projects team to track and close out all HAZID Study risk treatment plan/ recommendation.
For those deviations that are considered by the HAZID study team to be credible, the following information was recorded in the HAZID worksheet. Recommendations include design, operating, or maintenance changes that reduce or eliminate Deviations, Causes and/or Consequences.
During the study, the team discussed all possible causes of each deviation from the design intent and listed them. Once all causes were documented, the team focused on the consequences for each identified cause. The consequences documented were those that may credibly arise, given that the cause occurred. Once the consequences were documented, the team reviewed the process design and operations for safeguards that would prevent, detect, or mitigate each cause/consequence scenario. Any recommendations made are for additional safeguards that are not currently in use at the facility.
The purpose of the recommendations is to:
- Reduce the probability of occurrence of an incident;
- Reduce the severity of the consequences, in the event the incident was to occur;
- Request further information, when the scenario could not be fully described owing to a lack of data or Request an update or addition of a particular document.
The HAZID Study’s action items, also known as recommendations, are documented in the HAZID Report and subsequently monitored until resolution. The primary aim of the HAZID session was to identify potential hazards, operability concerns, or integrity issues, without the intention of resolving any existing problems.
Therefore, the recommendations generated have been worded in a general manner using words like ‘Consider’, ‘Ensure’ and ‘Other action verbs’; It is imperative to acknowledge that the reactions to the HAZID recommendations must furnish an unambiguous record of the audit trail, encompassing the justifications for executing or abstaining from any measures.
“…Ensure…” Ensure is generally used as a reminder to include a particular point in documents, such as P&ID, Operating, Control & Shutdown Philosophy and Cause and Effects, etc., which may not have been ready at the time of the HAZID. In cases where the issuance of the document precedes the closeout of the Hazard Identification (HAZID) process, it is imperative that the response includes a detailed notation of the specific actions that have been taken.
In the event that the issuance of the document is deferred until after the close-out of the Hazard Identification (HAZID) process, it is imperative that the response clearly outlines the method by which the point will be conveyed for subsequent implementation.
“…Review…” The process of identifying and describing potential problems is conducted expeditiously, with the sole purpose of highlighting the issues rather than attempting to resolve them. The response should outline the options considered and the conclusions reached, including justification for the action (including no action) taken.
“…Other action verbs…” Recommendations starting with other action verbs are mandatory actions that shall be implemented by party responsible for closing out each recommendation.